How to solve Blood Relation reasoning questions quickly

how to solve blood relation reasoning questions quickly

Blood relation questions in reasoning are very common from any competitive exam point of view. This topic is considered to be very important. Every year a good number of questions are asked from this topic. It is a must occurrence of Blood relation questions in the exam like IBPS PO, SBI PO, IBPS RRB, IBPS Clerk, SBI Clerk, IBPS RRB, SSC CGL, SSC CGL, SSC MTS, NICL AO, LIC AAO, SBI Associate Clerk, SBI Associate PO, and others.

In this article step-by-step we will discuss important concepts tricks and tips to solve Blood relation questions in logical reasoning. Using these simple techniques you can solve any types of questions in minimum time. In our previous article, we have discussed “Tricks & tips to solve inequality quantitative questions”.

For easy understanding of this topic, We will explain all the concepts and a few blood relation questions from recent competitive exam.

What is a Blood Relation?

Blood relation/ relationship means how a person is connected with other members in his or her family. In our society blood relations are like – father-mother, son daughter, brother-sister, grandfather-grandmother, uncle-aunt, nephew-niece, brother-in-law, sister-in-law etc. The list can go on and on adding members from father’s side and mother’s side etc.

Questions on Blood relation in logical reasoning are about the relationship of a particular person with another person of the family, based on the chain of relationships between other members of that family. Some important relations are provided below. These relations come handy to solve blood relation reasoning questions in minimum time.

Some Important Relations

  • Father of grandfather or grandmother→ Great-grandfather
  • Mother of grandfather or grandmother→ Great-grandmother
  • Father’s (or) mother’s son→ Brother
  • Father’s (or) mother’s daughter→ Sister
  • Mother’s brother→ Maternal Uncle
  • Father’s brother→ Paternal uncle
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s sister→ Aunt
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s father→ Grandfather
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s mother→ Grandmother
  • Son’s wife→ Daughter-in-law
  • Daughter’s husband→ Son-in-law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s father→ Father-in-law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s mother→ Mother-in-law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s brother→ Brother-in-law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s sister→ Sister-in-law
  • Sister’s husband→ Brother-in-law
  • Brother’s (or) Sister’s son→ Nephew
  • Brother’s (or) Sister’s daughter→ Niece
  • Uncle or aunt’s son or daughter→ Cousin
  • Grandson’s or Granddaughter’s son→ Great-grandson
  • Grandson’s or Granddaughter’s daughter→ Great-granddaughter

Type of Problems

  1. Single Person Blood Relations
  2. Mixed Blood Relations
  3. Puzzle based on blood relations
  4. Coded Blood Relations

Single Person Blood Relation

The question in this type are generally in form of a dialogue or conversation between two people and followed up with a question on the basis of information provided in the conversation. Some examples of this kind of problems are given below with a detailed explanation of how to solve them accurately and quickly.

Single person blood relation can be divided into two types based on the subject’s conversation.

  1. Direct Single Person Blood Relation
  2. Indirect Single Person Blood Relation
Direct Single Person Blood Relation

In this type of questions, conversation is done directly to a person.

For example,

Introducing Asha to guests, Bhaskar said, ” Her father is the only son of my father”. How is Asha related to Bhaskar?

The best approach to solve this type of question is visualizing the question from your own perspective. Put yourself in the position of the subject and try to establish relation according to the statement.

Break the statements into smaller parts to solve. First find where the relation is given from first person’s( or think about the person as you own) perspective like “My father”, “My wife”, “My father’s sister”. If it is found at the end of the statement, starts from the end and proceeds backward until final relation is established.

In this example, we start from the last information i.e, “My father” as it is a direct relation. First here, ”my father” is Bhaskar’s father. Then “only son of my father” means Bhaskar himself. Next “her father” means Asha’s father. Therefore, Asha’s father is Bhaskar. So Asha is the daughter of Bhaskar.

Indirect Single Person Blood Relation

In this type of questions, conversation is done indirectly to a person.

For example,

Pointing to a woman in the photograph, Rajesh said, “The only daughter of her grandfather is my wife”. How is Rajesh related to that woman?

Using the same approach as we did in “Single Person Blood Relation” we can solve this problem. Here “My wife” means Rajesh’s wife. Then “Her grandfather” means grandfather of the woman in the photograph. Next “only daughter of her grandfather” means mother of the woman in the photograph, who is wife of Rajesh as well. Therefore, Rajesh is the father of that woman.

Mixed Blood Relations

In this type, mutual blood relation in the group of person is given followed up with a series of questions. You need to answer those questions. The technique to solve them is making family tree diagrams.

You can draw family tree diagrams in the following fashion.

  • Use “+” sign to represent male.
  • Use “-” sign to represent female.
  • Use vertical lines represents to denote different generation. E.g Parent-child relation.
  • Double horizontal lines like “=” to denote couple and a single line to represent sibling relationships. Apart from that, a sibling relationship can easily be established if they share the same root.
  • Leave blank or put a “?” for the relationship that is not defined in the statement.
    To avoid confusion, it is better to keep persons from the same generation in one row.

hierarchical relation between generation diagram

For example,

K is the brother of X. Z is the son of X.P who is daughter of K is married to N. G and X are sister to each other. What is the relation between G and Z?

Steps to follow
  • Read the information carefully.
  • From each information try to draw a family tree. People of the same generation are placed at the same level and the entire diagram is in the form of a hierarchy.
  • Always starts to draw the diagram with the person, whose data is complete and presents many times within the question.
  • Try to not draw further diagrams for every new piece of information that you get. Instead, attempt adding data to the existing figure on reading the new information.

Since, as suggested above we should begin with the sentence with complete information and relationship of a specific person with other given several times (at least more than one time). Here, our first statement is a complete statement and relation with X also given in the next statement, it is better to start drawing the tree diagram from the first statement. Hence, we can draw the first statement like below. Here we do not have any information regarding the gender of X. So we leave it in our first diagram.Mixed Blood Relations diagram01 Relations diagram01 In the next sentence, relation between different generation is given. Here, we add Z as the son of X. Put +sign on Z to represent gender.

Mixed Blood Relations diagram02 In the third sentence, complete information is given. Here, we add P as a daughter of K. As we know that both P and N are couples. Therefore, N is male. We can draw the diagram like below.Mixed Blood Relations diagram03 We have finally reached in the position of completing our tree diagram by incorporating the final information which is about G and X, both are sisters to each other or in other words both are female. Therefore, G is aunt of Z.

Puzzle based on blood relation

In this type, a set of information of both blood relation and another category are given. To do this you just need to add that extra category(Like profession, hobby) below their name in the family tree diagram.

For example,

A family consists of six members A, B, C, D, E and F. There are two married couples. B is a doctor and the father of E. Doctor married to nurse. F is the grandfather of C and is a contractor. D is the grandmother of E and is a housewife. There is one doctor, one contractor, one nurse, one housewife and two students in the family.

1. Who is the husband of A?

(a) C (b) F (c) B (d) D (e) E

2. Who is the sister of E?

(a) C (b) F (c) E (d) information insufficient (e) None of these

3. What is the profession of A?

(a) Doctor (b) Nurse (c) Doctor or Nurse (d) Housewife (e) None of these

4. Which of the following are two married couples?

(a) FD, BE (b) FD, BA (c) ED, CF (d) FD, CA (e) None of these

5. Which of the following is definitely a group of male members?

(a) BF (b) BFE (c) BFA (d) FE (e) None of these

This Problem is similar to the above except now we have to take profession also into account. You can solve this problem exactly the same way we did in the earlier example. Here we need to match person relation with their profession.

In the first step, you need to separate direct information from indirect information. Statements 1,3,5,6 statements are direct information and 2,4,7 are indirect information. We will start drawing our diagram using direct information and indirect information will complete the diagram.

From the first two statements, we cannot start drawing as they do not contain any information about the relationship between individuals. But in the third statement we have a relationship between B and E. So we will start our diagram using the statement “B is a doctor and the father of E”. Here profession of B is given. You will write the profession of B beside B. Fourth statement is indirect but we can conclude that B must be the husband of nurse as “Doctor married to nurse”. As we do not have any information about E’s profession or wife of B. So, we leave it blank.diagram of blood relation puzzle01

Fifth statement does not have any information relating to B or E. But in the sixth statement, we have a relation between D and E. So, we can draw according to the information “D is the grandmother of E and is a housewife”. If we combine both fifth and sixth statement we find two relations one couple(D and F) and one pair of sibling(E and C).diagram of blood relation puzzle02 Finally, one last position is left to be filled. Hence, A must be the wife of B, is a nurse. From the diagram, it is clear that both the siblings E and C are students.diagram of blood relation puzzle03 With help of the above tree diagram, we can quickly solve all the questions followed in the problem above.

This is only one case of how more dimension can be combined with blood relation. These type of puzzle can even be incorporated with different reasoning ideas like seating arrangement and directions etc.

Coded blood relation

In this type, relations are not given directly, they are given in form of codes. You have to analyze the required relation based on the given code. Sometimes you require a diagrammatic representation of the problem to solve it. You can use the same representation used in mixed blood relations. In the coding equation better to solve the code from the last letter.

Two types of coded blood relations are generally asked in the examination.

  • Forward relation
  • Backward Relation
Forward relation

In this type of coded relation, relation of the former with the latter is given.

A+B→A is father of B

Backward relation

In this type of coded relation, relation of the latter with the former is given.

A+B→B is father of A

From both statements, it is clear that we have a relation of the first letter with the second letter in the coded blood relation. we cannot find the reverse relation between them. But there are some exceptions.

For example,

“A is father of B”

In the above statement, Blood relation of A with B is clear but we cannot determine any gender or relation of B with A. But there are some relations or chain of relations from which we can determine the relation of the last person with former person.

  1. Husband/Wife
    E.g- A is Husband of B.So, B must be wife of A

2. Father/Mother←Son/Daughter
E.g- A is Father of B and B is Son C. So, C must be wife of A or mother of B

3. Father/Mother←Brother/Sister←Son/Daughter
E.g- A is Mother of B, B is Brother C, C is Son of D. So, D must be husband of A or father of both B and C.

For example,

If, (i) ’P × Q’ means ‘P is brother of Q’

(ii) ’P – Q’ means ‘P is mother of Q’

(iii) ’P + Q’ means ‘P is father of Q’

(iv) ’P ÷ Q’ means ‘P is sister of Q’

1. How is B related to D in the expression B÷A×C+D?


C+D→C is the father of D

A×C+D→A is brother of C. So A is uncle of D

B÷A×C+D→B is sister of A. So B is also sister of C. Therefore, B is aunt of D.

Finally, you have learned all the important concept and tricks to solve blood relation questions for your upcoming competitive exam.

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